The first scenario is that of political whatsapp phone number list fragmentation or destructuring, where popular discontent with the political elites is expressed in the streets and electorally does not find a focal point. This scenario appears whatsapp phone number list in political systems with powerful economic elites, where macroeconomic stability was maintained and the processes of material and symbolic redistribution enabled by the boomof raw materials were sustained, but not dramatic. Chile is the paradigmatic case. The "Chilean October" that broke out in 2019 mobilized 20% of the population to the streets and forced the whatsapp phone number list holding of a plebiscite to decide on the need to draft a new Constitution.
The electoral results of whatsapp phone number list the October 2020 consultation confirmed the anger of the citizenry, with 80% support for the call for a Constitutional Convention (despite the much greater financial support for the rejection option). The election of constituents, in May 2021, once again signaled the discontent of citizens with the traditional parties, since a third of the seats remained in the hands of independent candidates. In Peru, dissatisfied young people facing a palace fight that ignored the whatsapp phone number list country's health and economic crisis took to the streets defying the pandemic in November 2020.
The annoyance of citizens whatsapp phone number list with these politicians oblivious to their suffering was reflected in a presidential election in which the Electoral fragmentation was such that the 18% who obtained the blank and whatsapp phone number list invalid votes almost matched the candidate with the most votes, while the second candidate received 13% electoral support. In the second round between those two candidates, Pedro Castillo and Keiko Fujimori, and with a campaign that polarized public opinion by raising the specter whatsapp phone number list of communism if the former.